How long can a battery last?
The service design life of a battery varies considerably with how it is used, how it is maintained and charged, temperature, among other factors.
What determines the life of a VRLA battery?
Sealed lead acid battery life is determined by many factors. These include temperature, depth and rate of discharge, and the number of charges and discharges (called cycles).
What is the difference between float and cycle applications?
A float application requires the battery to be on constant charge with an occasional discharge.
Cycle applications charge and discharge the battery on a regular basis.
What is the definition of "cycle use" and "standby use"?
"Cycle Use" - direct power source:
Cycle Use It can provide the power supply to power tools, and portable electronic products. It can also be used for cycling charging and discharging usage such as electronics motorbike or vacuum cleaner.
"Standby Use" - back up power:
Standby Use is mainly used for emergency power to avoid future damage that may be caused by a sudden power outage.
When should a deep-cycle battery be used?
Deep-cycle batteries are used when 50% or more of the capacity is used per cycle. The most common use of deep-cycle batteries is in applications that require deep, repetitive drain, like powerful car audio systems, trolling motors, golf carts, electric wheelchairs, or RV house power sources. Public safety and high-performance vehicles are other applications that call for the special characteristics of deep-cycle batteries.
Does overcharging damage batteries?
OVERCHARGING is the most destructive element in battery service. Usually the boater is not aware that this is occurring as he believes his alternator or battery charger is "automatic." Unfortunately, these automatic circuits are sensitive to voltage surges, heat, direct lightening strikes and indirect lightening electromagnetic influences and could fail or shift their calibration. When they fail, overcharging begins to affect the batteries. During overcharging, excessive current causes the oxides on the plates of the battery to "shed" and precipitate to the bottom of the cell and also heat the battery, thus removing water from the electrolyte. Once removed, this material (which represents capacity) is no longer active in the battery. In addition, the loss of water from the electrolyte may expose portions of the plates and cause the exposed areas to oxidize and become inactive, thus reducing additional capacity. Sealed batteries are not immune from the same internal results when overcharged. In fact, sealed recombination absorption and gel batteries are particularly sensitive to overcharging. Once moisture is removed from the battery, it cannot be replaced. Portions of the battery damaged due to overcharging are irretrievable. However, if detected early, corrective adjustments to the charging device will save the undamaged portion of the battery. Initial signs of overcharging are excessive usage of water in the battery, continuously warm batteries, or higher than normal battery voltages while under the influence of the charger. If overcharging is suspected, correct immediately.
Does over-discharging damage batteries?
OVER-DISCHARGING is a problem which originates from insufficient battery capacity causing the batteries to be overworked. Discharges deeper than 50% (in reality well below 12.0 Volts or 1.200 Specific Gravity) significantly shorten the Cycle Life of a battery without increasing the usable depth of cycle. Infrequent or inadequate complete recharging can also cause over-discharging symptoms called SULFATION. Despite that charging equipment is regulating back properly, over-discharging symptoms are displayed as loss of battery capacity and lower than normal specific gravity. Sulfation occurs when sulfur from the electrolyte combines with the lead on the plates and forms lead-sulfate. Once this condition becomes chronic, marine battery chargers will not remove the hardened sulfate. Sulfation can usually be removed by a proper desulfation or equalization charge with external manual battery chargers. To accomplish this task, the flooded plate batteries must be charged at 6 to 10 amps. at 2.4 to 2.5 volts per cell until all cells are gassing freely and their specific gravity returns to their full charge concentration. Sealed AGM batteries should be brought to 2.35 volts per cell and then discharged to 1.75 volts per cell. This process must be repeated until the capacity returns to the battery. Gel batteries may not recover. In most cases, the battery may be returned to complete its service life.
CHARGING Alternators and float battery chargers including regulated photo voltaic chargers have automatic controls which taper the charge rate as the batteries come up in charge. It should be noted that a decrease to a few amperes while charging does not mean that the batteries have been fully charged. Battery chargers are of three types. There is the manual type, the trickle type, and the automatic switcher type.
How to determine a VRLA battery is fully charged while charging with constant-voltage limited-current method?
Two standards: 1. Charge time reached 18~24 hours (for non-deep discharge such as 20% DOD discharge, the charge time can be shortened to 10 hours); 2. The charge current drops to minimum value and lasted for 3 hours.
Why VRLA battery will generate heat while charging?
While charging, a part of electric energy is converted into chemical energy, and another part of electric energy is converted into heat and other energies. Generating heat is a kind of normal phenomenon, but you need to be vigilant when temperature elevation is too high. It might be caused by large charging current or internal short circuit.
Are lead acid batteries recyclable?
Lead acid batteries are 100% recyclable. Lead is the most recycled metal in the world today. The plastic containers and covers of old batteries are neutralized, reground and used to the manufacture of new battery cases. The electrolyte can be processed for recycled waste water uses. In some cases, the electrolyte is cleaned and reprocessed and sold as battery grade electrolyte. In other instances, the sulfate content is removed as Ammonia Sulfate and used in fertilizers. The separators are often used as a fuel source for the recycling process.